|EM merupakan konsep mutakhir dalam bidang mikrobiologi yang merupakan kultur campuran dari mikroorganisme yang menguntungkan, yang bermanfaat tidak saja untuk kesuburan tanah dan pertumbuhan tanaman melainkan juga bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan produksi pertanian.
EM mengandung mikroorganisme fermentasi dan sintetik terdiri dari Bakteri asam laktat (Lactobacillus Spp), bakteri fotosintetik (Rhodopseudomonas Spp), Actynomycetes, Streptomyces sp, dan ragi.
Dari Wikipedia :
Effective Microorganisms (有用・微生物群, "Yūyō・Biseibutsugun") or EM is a technology first coined by Dr. Teruo Higa (比嘉照夫博士) of Japan. The technical translation from Japanese to English is "Effective Microorganisms". It is known generically as "beneficial and efficient or effective microorganisms technology". People refer to it descriptively as "EM Technology" or simply "EM". EM was first brought to the market in 1982. Dr. Higa's students started EM Research Organization in 1994 and Sustainable Community Development, LLC ("SCD") in 1998 to expand the use of the technology to over 120 countries. Only official products carry the "SCD EM Inside" logo or EM Logo, a series of green dots with the letters "EM" in the largest circle.
Dr. Teruo Higa realized that there are three general forms of soil microbes involved with the process of growing plants that create a soil called a zymogenic soil. His research showed that specific types of microorganisms tended to exist in certain proportions in healthy soil environments and in water. From this he developed the formula for Effective Microorganisms™, a proprietary and trademarked formula sold through EM Research Organization affiliate offices throughout the world, which contains specific types of Lactobacillus, Phototrophic Bacteria (PNSB), and Yeasts. Within Effective Microorganisms™ these microorganisms exist as a consortium or in a symbiotic relationship to one another. This Effective Microorganisms™ culture is sold as an inoculant that can be activated or extended (grown) for reasons of economics. The process of activation can result in up to a 20x increase from the original culture. Activation usually involves adding the original Effective Microorganisms™ culture to a mixture of water and blackstrap molasses, its main food source. The mixture is then allowed to ferment in an anaerobic environment anywhere from several days to weeks or months, depending on the goals of application.
EM is used to make EM-Bokashi (EMぼかし). Bokashi (ぼかし) is an old vernacular word in Japanese that translates into English as fermented organic matter. EM Bokashi is generally used to ferment food waste. Sometimes it can be made with manures and made into a bio-active fertilizer. When the EM-Bokashi is applied to garden soil, dramatic results may be realized for the harvest season. Even more amazing is the application of EM-Bokashi to soils that are not fertile or denuded in some other way. In a remarkably short time the soil is productive.
Over the years this process has been expanded and refined. The various microbe classes may be applied independently of one another (EM-1, EM-2, EM-3, EM-4 and EM-5 (Stochu)) for different needs in the agricultural and orcharding operations in a few countries that still sell the components.